The 21st century has been very good to the world’s spies. Since the terror attacks of September 11, 2001, secret intelligence agencies have increased their power and influence in countries as diverse as the United States, Russia,Turkey,Saudi Arabia, and Israel.
What these spy services have in common is secrecy, techniques, and elaborate emblems to signal their mission. They are a physical reality. They are clandestine bureaucracies, housed in office building and military compounds in all of the major capitals of the world. Their personnel are engaged in
not to mention, assassination, and drone wars.
In short, intelligence services inform and protect. They also subvert and destroy.
המוסד הוא אחד משירותי הביון הידוע לשמצה והיעיל ביותר. אין מקביל למדיניות החיסולים שלו באף סוכנות ביון אחרת בעולם.
גורמים ישראלים רשמיים הכירו בארגון חיסולם של חמישה מדעני גרעין איראניים, כחלק מהמאמץ למנוע מאיראן השגת נשק גרעיני. רשויות איחוד האמירויות טעונות שצוות של 26 סוכני מוסד היו אחראיים להרג של מפקד צבאי בכיר של החמאס בחדר המלון שבדובאי בשנת 2010.
למוסד יכולות סייבר מגוונות. בשנות האלפיים, לפי הדיווחים, המודיעין הישראלי החדיר את וירוס ה-Stuxnet לתוך המחשבים של מתקני הגרעין האיראניים הגרם לצנטריפוגות במהירות גבוהה לכשל בתפקוד. הווירוס שהתגלה בשנת 2010, נוצר על ידי צוות ישראלי – אמריקאי משותף, על פי הוושינגטון פוסט.
באפריל 2018, הודיע ראש ממשלת ישראל, בנימין נתניהו, כי סוכנים ישראלים פרצו לארכיון של תוכנית הגרעין האיראנית של השנים 1993 עד 2003. גורמים ישראלים רשמיים מעריכים שהם השיגו כעשרים אחוז מכלל הארכיון. האוצר כולל כ-55,000 מסמכים וכ-55,000 קבצים על דיסקים – קבצים הכוללים תמונות וסרטונים בנוסף למסמכים. איראן הכחישה את ההכרזה.
שירות הביטחון הכללי של ישראל, המקביל ל-FBI האמריקאי, מכונה השב”כ. על פי נתוני ארגון “Human Rights Watch”, הרשויות הישראליות אוכפות “הגבלות חמורות ומפלות על זכויות האדם של הפלסטינים” ומסייעות ל”העברה בלתי חוקית של אזרחי ישראל להתנחלויות בגדה המערבית הכבושה.”
על פי נתוני עיתון “הארץ”, התקציב המשולב של שני השירותים בשנת 2017 היה 2.4 מיליארד דולר. ראש שירות המוסד, יוסי כנן, מונה לתפקיד בשנת 2016.
Mossad (the Hebrew word for “institute”) is one of the world’s most effective and notorious intelligence services. Its policy of targeted assassination is unparalleled among the world’s intelligence agencies.
Israeli officials have acknowledged organizing the assassination of five Iranian nuclear scientists, as part of an effort to prevent Iran from obtaining nuclear weapons. UAE authorities say a team of 26 Mossad agents was responsible for killing a senior Hamas military commander in a Dubai hotel room in 2010.
Mossad has diverse cyber capabilities. Israeli intelligence reportedly infiltrated the Stuxnet virus into the computers of Iranian nuclear facilities causing high-speed centrifuges to malfunction. The virus, discovered in 2010, was produced by a joint U.S.-Israeli team, according to the Washington Post.
Israel’s domestic security service, equivalent to the American FBI, is known as Shin Bet. According to Human Rights Watch, Israeli authorities enforce “severe and discriminatory restrictions on Palestinians’ human rights” and facilitate “the unlawful transfer of Israeli citizens to settlements in the occupied West Bank.”
The combined budget of Mossad and Shin Bet in 2017 was $2.4 billion, according to Ha’aretz. Mossad director, Yossi Cohen, was appointed in 2016.
The privatization of secret intelligence is happening all over the world. It’s like the privatization of everything else: a function of government is farmed out to corporations.. And it’s something of a menace to social movements
Just as the job of army–to guard, shoot, and kill– is turned over to mercenaries, now known in corporate-speak as Private Military Contractors so the work of intelligence agencies–to investigate, influence, and infiltrate –is turned over spooks for hire, known as private intelligence companies.
The Washington-based Fusion GPS, which commissioned the partially confirmed Steele dossier about President Trump’s Russia dealings, is a classic example of private intelligence firm, albeit one run by journalist not a spook.
But the private spy trade is increasingly dominated by Israeli firms entering the market. The reason is simple: the Israeli intelligence services–Mossad (foreign), Shin Bet (domestic), and Amal (military)– generate more trained intelligence operatives than any other country in the world.
These [Israeli] companies had a unique advantage: few countries produce more highly trained and war-tested intelligence professionals, as a proportion of the population, than Israel. Conscription in Israel is mandatory for most citizens, and top intelligence units often identify talented recruits while they are in high school. These soldiers undergo intensive training in a range of language and technical skills. After a few years of government service, most are discharged, at which point many finish their educations.
The New Yorker story details the story of how one Israeli firm, Psy-Group, sought to “destabilize and disrupt” American student activists who support the Boycott, Divestment, Sanctions movement against the Israeli government. The key was deception: to make sure the actions could not be traced to the firm.
Private intelligence firms are used for jobs that official agencies prefer not to do. For Mossad to spy on and harass American college students would be politically risky. The exposure of such an operation could inflame American public opinion, which has been turning against Israel in recent years.
A private intelligence firm can achieve the same goal as a government agency but with more “plausible deniability.” If the firm’s secret operations are exposed–as the Psy-Group’s were–the Israeli government can disavow any knowledge of its actions.
Private intelligence firms can also engage in partisan politics, another risky arena for a spy service. Joel Zamel, the chief of Psy-Group, has bragged about helping the Trump campaign win with a secret social media campaign. Publicly, Zamel denies any such action.
The New York Times reported last year. that Psy-Group created several secret proposals for the Trump campaign at the behest of Rick Gates, deputy director of the Trump campaign. Gates has pled guilty and is cooperating with the Trump-Russia prosecutors.
After Zamel and Psy-Group employees were interviewed by the FBI in connection with the Trump-Russia investigation, Zamel shut down Psy-Group in February 2018.
Private intelligence firms can target the leaders of friendly nations, also risky for government service.
Last year it was revealed that another Israeli firm, Black Cube, sought to collect intelligence linking former Obama administration officials to an effort to conceal Iran’s assets in the West. Black Cube also sought to learn whether Iran had paid off officials like Ben Rhodes, the former deputy national security adviser, as part of the international agreement to curb Iran’s nuclear program.
Black Cube is closely linked to Israel’s intelligence establishment. The late Mossad chief Meir Dagan was the president of its corporate board. Efraim Halevy, who served as the director of Mossad from 1998 to 2002, recently joined the firm.
Eli Lake of Bloomberg News described the Black Cube operationas “poorly conceived and executed.” But by its very existence, the operation impugned Obama officials and buttressed the Israeli government’s efforts to discredit the Iran nuclear agreement. When the operation was exposed. Black Cube issued an evasive statement. The Israeli government didn’t have to respond.
Israeli private intelligence firms also supply spyware to Arab intelligence services.
An Israeli company, NSO Group Technologies, offered Saudi Arabia a system that hacks cellphones, a few months before Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman began his purge of regime opponents, according to Ha’aretz (paywall), the reliable Israeli news site.
The Israelis have plenty of competition. U.S. entrepreneurs invented private intelligence, and Fusion GPS has many counterparts in Washington. A U.S. firm, run by former NSA employees, sold private intelligence services to the United Arab Emirates, which used them track and repress critics of the Yemen war.